What are the excellent properties and applications of special ceramics?
Special ceramics refer to ceramics with special mechanical, physical or chemical properties, which are used in various modern industries and cutting-edge science and technology. The raw materials used in special ceramics and the required production process are very different from ordinary ceramics, and some countries call them "precision ceramics". Recently, Chinese materials experts have agreed that it would be better to call them "advanced ceramics". Special ceramics can be subdivided into structural ceramics, functional ceramics and tool ceramics according to their performance characteristics and uses.
Special ceramics , also known as fine ceramics, can be roughly divided into two categories according to their application functions: high-strength, high-temperature-resistant and composite structural ceramics and electrical and electronic functional ceramics. Add a specific formula of inorganic materials to the ceramic body, and then sinter at a high temperature of about 1360 degrees to obtain stable and reliable antistatic properties. One or more functions, such as biology, and coupling functions, such as piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, acousto-optic, magneto-optic, etc.
Special ceramics have many excellent properties, so they are widely used:
(1) Special ceramics with excellent heat resistance are expected to be used as ultra-high temperature materials for high-temperature structural materials and high-temperature electrode materials related to atomic energy;
(2) Special ceramics with excellent thermal insulation properties can be used as new high-temperature thermal insulation materials for high-temperature heating furnaces, heat treatment furnaces, high-temperature reaction vessels, nuclear reactors, etc.;
(3) Special ceramics with excellent thermal conductivity are expected to be used as heat sinks for electronic devices with VLSI and VLSI inside;
(4) Hard special ceramics with excellent wear resistance are widely used, and the current work is mainly concentrated on bearings and cutting tools;
(5) High-strength ceramics can be used in burners, blades, turbines, sleeves, etc., in many countries, such as the United States, Japan, Germany, etc. They have invested a lot of manpower and material resources to try to take the lead;
(6) Lubricating ceramics such as hexagonal boron nitride are very attractive, and foreign countries are stepping up research;
(7) The use of alumina, carboniferous phosphorus, etc., such as artificial teeth, artificial bones, artificial joints, etc., is ongoing in bioceramics, and the application of this aspect has attracted great attention;
(8) Some new functional ceramics (such as far-infrared ceramics) with other special uses have also begun to play their unique roles in industrial and civil fields.
Some economically developed countries, especially Japan, the United States and Western European countries, have invested a lot of manpower, material and financial resources in the research and development of special ceramics in order to accelerate the new technological revolution and lay a material foundation for the development of new industries. Therefore, the development of special ceramics is very rapid, and there are great breakthroughs in technology. Special ceramics are playing an increasingly important role in modern industrial technology, especially in high-tech fields. Many scientists predict that special ceramics will occupy a very important position in the development of science and technology in the 21st century.