Application of Special Ceramic Materials in Automobiles
Automotive engines have been developed for nearly a hundred years, and their thermal efficiency has been hovering at a very low level. At present, the main engines used in automobiles are diesel engines (general thermal efficiency 35%-45%) and gasoline engines (general thermal efficiency 25%-35%). In order to improve the efficiency of the engine and reduce energy loss, it is necessary to cancel or partially cancel the cooling system, and use high temperature resistant and heat insulating materials to reduce the heat loss of the combustion chamber, so that the engine can work at a higher operating temperature, and the fuel efficiency of the engine higher. However, special ceramic materials are heat-resistant, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant, and have a small thermal expansion coefficient. They are very suitable for manufacturing ceramic adiabatic engines, and can well prevent the loss of heat energy in the cylinder.
The engine core uses the characteristics of heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high elastic modulus (low expansion coefficient), low density, and good heat insulation of special ceramic materials, which can prevent heat loss in the cylinder, improve engine thermal efficiency, and save energy . Energy can also simplify the overall structure of the engine and reduce the weight of the engine; ceramic pistons replace the precious metal pistons in diesel engines, which greatly saves the preparation cost of vortex chamber diesel engines; there are also ceramic cylinder liners and so on.
Ceramic brake discs are not ordinary ceramics, but reinforced composite ceramics synthesized by carbon fiber and silicon carbide in 1700, and the weight is less than half that of ordinary cast iron brake discs. The lighter the brake disc, the smaller the weight under the suspension, making the suspension system respond faster, thereby improving the overall control level of the vehicle, and effectively improving the safety and stability of the car's braking. At present, silicon carbide composite materials and Al2O3 special ceramic friction materials are widely used.
In addition, ordinary brake discs are prone to thermal fading due to high heat under full braking, while ceramic brake discs can effectively and stably resist thermal fading. Special ceramic composite materials can withstand temperatures above 1000 degrees Celsius and have good corrosion resistance and durability, so the service life of ceramic composite brake discs is 6 times that of ordinary cast iron discs.
The high-end car shock absorber is an intelligent shock absorber developed by comprehensively utilizing the direct piezoelectric effect, inverse piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect of special ceramics . Its principle is to use high-sensitivity ceramic components, use piezoelectric ceramics to drive the large piston in the suspension, and amplify the displacement of piezoelectric ceramics through the movement displacement of the small piston connected to the large piston, so as to obtain the required vibration reduction at idle speed. The large displacement can effectively suppress the vibration of the engine at idle speed. This shock absorber also has the function of recognizing the road surface and self-adjusting, thereby reducing the vibration caused by the uneven road surface to a lower limit.
The above is about the application of special ceramics in automobiles. I hope you can study and understand the relevant knowledge carefully and choose the products that suit you.